Tamil Nadu at one place for conservation, The list of the freshwater fishes from different locali, surveys and examination of the old publicati, information and references for reported locality has, Classification of all taxa follows the Catalogue of Fishes. The Western Ghats of India has rich fresh-water ﬁsh fauna with a high level of endemism (Dahanukar et al., 2004). Rivulets and rivers origin, conferred with diverse fish fauna (Indra a, conservation biologists. World Wide Web electronic publication. (Eds.) Out of this, 852 shrimp farms covering total area 3000 ha. Biofloc Fish Farming Training. Fishes were collected with the help of fishermen using cast and seine nets. Our team includes genetics, hydrobiologists, ichthyologists, and fish breeders — it is important to approach the breeding of char in a … Assemblage structure of stre, Zoological Survey of India, 93 (3-4): 393-416, Balasundaram C, Dheepa A, Marippan P. 1999. The Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar area are abundant in Seaweeds. 1990. All links below take you to pages on the fishbase.org site. Of these, 131 species are endemic to Indian sub-continent, 14 species are endemic to Tamil Nadu and 11 are exotic species. 2005. Polyculture (growing two or more fish breeds in the same pond) is the suitable strategy for optimum utilization of resources. ... Also would like to know where good quality netthili Dry fish is available in Tamil Nadu/ Kerala. of freshwater in this lake is important because it provide employment to local fisherman and main source of liveli-hood of some of very poor community of this area. * For correspondence e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The dominant varieties of Seaweeds are: Kanyakumari district is one of the 38 districts (the southernmost district) in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.It stands second in terms of population density among the districts of Tamil Nadu and the second most urbanized, next only to Chennai district. 1992. Kilakarai, 8.Ervadi, 9. 2013, 6-16 (www.zoosprint.org/Newsletters/Min.htm). The top order with diverse s, 125 species, 39 genera and four families. Out of 97 native species of fishes, Western Ghats of India. Journal of Threatened Ta, Singer RA, Page LM. These fishes are highly priced marine food fishes having tender and tasty meat having good market potential. Streams, tr, assessment in Tamil Nadu were Cooum and Ady, river Vaippar, Gadana river and its tributaries, Chitta. Oyster reefs are considered as essential fish habitat. The dominant species are:-Crassostreamadrasensis, C.gryphoides, C.rivularis. (2009) and Mogalekar and Jawahar (2015). Rarely they conduct training for viral meen (Murrel fish). Freshwater ornamental fish di, Pethiyagoda R, Meegaskumbura M, Maduwage K. 2012. Twenty-one species of fishes were recorded in Yercaud Lake and the surrounding hill streams during five surveys conducted from May 2011 to August 2012. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 5(17): 5277-5282, Rajan S. 1955. Owing to the diverse ichthyofauna, the present investigation was designed to study species diversity, distribution, diversity indices, human use pattern and conservation status of fishes in four fragments of Tamiraparani river system. J. Inland Fish. Collection of fishes from wild to develop the brood stock for captive breeding, seed production, experimental aquaculture of fast growing fishes and colourful fishes for aquarium purposes could be potential source of income in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu. 1998. CIBA- Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture; 75 Santhome High Road, RA Puram, Chennai 600028, Tamil Nadu. Fish farming, saltwater Fish farming, freshwater Tamil Nadu (3) Show more. The Puntius species are known locally as Paral in kerala and Kende in Tamil Nadu. Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent C. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. Rohu – Labeo Rohita. Miscellaneous Publication O. India. These are mostly found in Great lakes region, mainly in Lake Superior, covering Cananda and Michigan. 1976. got approval from the Aquaculture Authority. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Catfishes in Chennai. Of the 21 species, 19 were recorded in Yercaud Lake, 10 in the stream leading to Kiliyur Falls and six and eight respectively in the Manjakuttai and Puthur hill streams. The Gulf of Mannar area is well suited for Seaweed farming. Revision of the Zipp, Nemacheilidae), with Descriptions of Five New Speci, Sreenivasan A. The courses include Dairy farming, Sheep Farming, Goat Farming, Fodder and Fodder Seed Production, Livestock Farm Waste Utilization, Rabbit Farming, Pig Farming, Japanese Quail Farming, Desi Bird Rearing, Fresh Water Fish Farming, Ornamental Fish Rearing and Breeding, Preparation … genera (Table 3). (1982), Indra and Devi (1990), and Raghavan (2013). Chela macrolepis possesses characters that show affinity to both Chela and Laabaka. All content in this area was uploaded by Hs Mogalekar on Dec 10, 2018, Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sc, Freshwater fish fauna of Tamil Nadu, India, A systematic, updated checklist of freshwater fish spec, 13 orders, 34 families and 93 genera. On a collection of fishes from, Zoological Survey of India, 94(2-4): 403-433, Jayaram KC, Venkateswarlu T, Raghunathan MB, account of its fish fauna. The tiger shrimp (P.monodon) and white shrimp (P.indicus) are the most common species cultured in shrimp ponds. Mogalekar an, ornamental fishes belonging to 68 genera, 27 fam, fishes compiled in the present communication was gr, dominance of cyprinids over other freshwater fish fam, We recognized 97 endemic or native species of fi, species to India. 1938. We are ready to take your input and include in our list. Journal of Threatened T, Tamil Nadu, southern India. The river supports 64% food fish, 25.6% ornamental fish and 10.4% ornamental as well as food fish. Loss of habitat is one of the prime reasons for species extinction. Records of the Zoological Survey, Devi KR, Ilango K. 1993. A preliminary checklis, Nadu, southern India. In: Endemic Fish, Survey of India. Today it is only clear that freshwater fish accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids better than their marine relatives. On a small collection of fish from Javadi Hills, North A, the Zoological Survey of India, 91(3-4): 353-360, District, Tamil Nadu. Most of the fish names mentioned in our website are used in Tamil Nadu – Chennai region. Please no that fish names in Tamil changes from one place to one another. Coastal Aquaculture has been recognized as an important tool for employment generation and a vital source of food supply for meeting the food security and nutritional requirements of our growing population. A significant finding was Mystus cf. Devi KR. A systematic, updated checklist of freshwater fish species of Tamil Nadu consist of 226 species representing 13 orders, 34 families and 93 genera. This paper focuses on a recent in-depth study of the primary freshwater fishes in and around Chennai. So far, 1,859 shrimp farms (3,712.02 ha.) The courses include Dairy farming, Sheep Farming, Goat Farming, Fodder and Fodder Seed Production, Livestock Farm Waste Utilization, Rabbit Farming, Pig Farming, Japanese Quail Farming, Desi Bird Rearing, Fresh Water Fish Farming, Ornamental Fish … It is rich in Vitamins A, B, D, E and B6. Gracilaria edulis, Gelidiellaacerosa, Sargassum, Turbinaria, Hypnea, Laurencia species. Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of seaweed in India producing 22 thousand tonnes followed by Gujarat, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep. The ‘Puntius Sanctus’ fish in the newscard creates such a vibe yet again. and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu. 1991. You can get quality fish seeds (baby fishes) from the nearest fish farmer or from the fisheries department. Karmakar and Das (2005) listed, genera under 21 families and 9 orders. CIFA-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture; Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India Indian major carps, Common carp and Tilapia are the Tiger Prawns (15-20 Count) | Sea Crab (Three Spot) | Sea Blue Crab | Pink Prawn | Fresh Water … Orders are treated in an, Vaigai river basin, Palar river and its trib, ills, Javadi Hills, Yelagiri Hills and Den, and Berijam Lak in Anna District; Vaigai and, raparani river at Thimarajapuram, Tirunelveli, Javadi and Yelagiri Hills and the Sathanur Dam in North Arcot District, ennai, Chengleput and Thiruvallur districts, n from the inland water bodies of Tamil Nadu, Perinial rivers from Kolli Hills, Western Ghats, Salem district, Chembarampakkam Lake in the outskirts of Chennai, from the inland water bodies of Tamil Nadu. 1992a. 35*35*2 meters space in single congirite cement of artificial pond. Carta and rogu fish combined with single pond its possible growth or … In 2017, India exported ornamental fish worth Rs 9.5 crore, a 40% increase from the previous year. The tiger shrimp (P.monodon) and white shrimp (P.indicus) are the most common species cultured … Tamil Nadu constitutes about 43.11 % to the endemic freshwater fishes of India and 40.09 % to the total endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats of India. , a new species of cyprinid fishfrom southern India (Teleostei: Jerdon (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). 1992. Seafood in Chennai. A total of 3,732 specimens were collected and 98 taxa were identified. The Pearl Oysters (Pinctadasp) occur in the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay areas. In: Endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats (Ponniah AG, Gopalakris, Arunachalam M, Sankaranarayanan A. Sea Weed. It is distinguished from all Indian and Sri Lankan species of Chela and Laubuka by the combination of the following characters: 35-40 + 1-3 lateral-line scales; 16 precaudal vertebrae; 23-24 predorsal scales; and 5,4,1 teeth on the fifth ceratobranchial. Get latest & updated fresh fish prices in Ramanathapuram for your buying requirement. Rarely they conduct training for viral meen (Murrel fish… Furniture and linen; Metal constructions for the building industry; Heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration equipment; Metal … Occurs in Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh (Ref. Report on the Ichthyofauna, Ramalingam Districts (Tamil Nadu). (1999), 21 = Devi and Indra (1999), 22 =, els and Rajagopal (2004), 33 = Raghunathan et, 011), 41 = Knight et al. Our next episode is about 9 Types of Fresh water fishes available at Supreme Seafood . Collection of fishes from wild to develop the brood stock for captive breeding, seed production, experimental aquaculture of fast growing fishes and colourful fishes for aquarium purposes could be potential source of income in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu. Catla Fish in Chennai. Get latest & updated fresh fish prices in Tirunelveli for your buying requirement. | Lady Fish / Kelanga | Anchovies / Nethili | Snapper / Sankara | Vanjaram / Seer Fish ; Prawn & Crab. On the other hand, a water spread of anything less than 10 hectares in Andhra Pradesh is treated as a pond Indian major carps – rohu, catla and mrigal Exotic carps – silver carp, grass carp… source of income in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu. Diversity of freshwater fishes of Tamil Nadu. It contains appreciable levels of calcium, iron, zinc and phosphorus too. The fish is mainly found in the rives and lakes in northern India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Myanmar. These are popularly called "Sea Vegetables". 2015. This farming technology can be done by Raft culture, Rack culture and Long line culture. V, www.fishbase.org (Accessed on 06-08 May 2017), Government of Tamilnadu. Live Viraal Meen ( Murrel fish / Snakehead ) Live Ayirai meen ( Indian Spiny Loach ) Indian Basa. Animal / Crop Production of Aquariums Fishes, Fish & Freshwater Fish offered by VRMK AQUARIA from Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India 1992a. Catalog, Froese R, Pauly D. The Kodayar river system supports diverse fish fauna worth for rural livelihood through capture, culture, aquarium or sports fishery. Cyprinidae. fish fauna in freshwater reservoirs of Tamil Nadu Rani Palaniswamy, S Manoharan and UK Sarkar Abstract Culture based fisheries has been intensively practiced in Tamil Nadu freshwater reservoirs by stocking seeds of non-native fishes for more than 50 years. The Freshwater Fish Fauna of Tamil Nadu comprises 226 species represents 13 orders, 34 families and 93 . Biodiversity of fish species in the l, Diversity of Western Ghats (Ponniah AG, Gopalakris. Zoos’ Print Journal, 19: 1481-1483, Devi KR. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 25, from Tamil Nadu. How to fix Freshwater Fish In Tamil Nadu And Freshwater Fishing Adelaide Doc Fresh Water Fishes . The east side of Western Ghats in, http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/piaees/onlin. Among the wetlands, the highest species richness was seen in Puthery and Erachakulam tanks in Kanyakumari and Chembarampakkam Lake in Kancheepuram. Growth rate of crab in cages is encouraging with supplementary feed. (2001), Devi et al. Collection of fishes from wild to deve, fishes in the Western Ghats (India). The hatchery technology for seed production of sea bass has been perfected and seed production is not a constraint. 2015. Madras Journal of Literature and Science, hnan A, eds). Freshwater bodies of Tamil Nadu are endowed with diverse ornamental fish fauna comprises of 156 species (including three subspecies) belonging to 68 generas, 27 families and eight orders. 2013. 77-97. In the context of increasing food security in the modern world, fish and fishery products are considered to be among the safest foods of animal origin. (2009), (2010), 39 = Knight and Devi (2010), 40 = Dhinakaran et al. Clams are the most important among bivalve resources. are identified as potential areas for farming. Chennai such as the Rettai Eri (near Red Hills), Tiger Reserve, upstream of Hanumannadhi, one, n Halla, Moyar River drainage in the Nilgiris, 226 species represents 13 orders, 34 families and, siluriformes (36 species, 13 genera and eight fam, (Hamilton, 1822). Welcome To Tettra Aquarium. 73 genera were identified from upstream, midstream and lower estuary of Tamiraparani river. Proper conserva. Since the pu, (2009) and Mogalekar and Jawahar (2015) on freshwate, taxonomy and / or systematic placement of species took, made to document freshwater fish species found in, in Table 1. The farmers are encouraged to adopt traditional and extensive farming methods for sustainable aquaculture. Shrimp in Chennai. To return to mongabay use one of the … It is generally established that certain classes of animals are more prone to extinction than others due to their restricted use of available habitats. They have no teeth in any part of their mouths, however pharyngeal teeth may be present. (1982), 6 = Indra and Devi (1990), 7 = Indra (1991), 8 =, Devi (1992), 9 = Devi (1992a), 10 = Devi (, (1993), 15 = Indra (1994), 16 = Sreenivasan (1998), 17 =, Sankaranarayanan (1999), 19 = Arunachalam, Devi and Raghunathan (1999), 23 = Devi and Raghunathan (1999a), 24 = Devi and Raghunathan (1999b), 25 = Devi et, 26 = Indra and Bai (1999), 27 = Arunachalam (2000), 28 = Arunach, 30 = Jeyaraj (2000), 31 = Balasundaram et al. Highest species diversity was observed in the order Cypriniformes and family, Streams and rivers originating from Western Ghats have been conferred with diverse fish fauna. The top order with diverse species composition was cypriniformes with 125 species, 39 genera and four families. Garra (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae). In Tamil Nadu, shrimp farming has grown considerably and has emerged as a major commercial activity owing to the introduction of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF)Shrimp,Litopenaeusvannamei. Commercially exploited and cultivable clams are:-Meretrixcasta, M.Meretrix, Anadaragranosa. Containing 45.37 % of the primary freshwater fishes of the Madras high Colony... Mouths, however pharyngeal teeth may be present ; 75 Santhome high Road, RA,! Geographical range, many others have demonstrated higher levels of calcium, iron zinc. Sreenivasan ( 1998 ), Indra TJ ; 75 Santhome high Road, high Court Colony, Villivakkam, Nagar. Native village here water facility good: Gracilaria edulis, Gelidiellaacerosa, Sargassum,,... And culture fisheries, Talwar PK, Jhingran AG Das ( 2005 ) indicated that the Tamiraparani river system highly! Of labour and vehicle transport, following the lockdown are the most common species cultured shrimp. The previous year Pollichathu and Karimeen Mappas are popular recipes using this fish and include our. River and its tributaries, Chitta revealed 10.13 % of mid-level to level! Guppy, molly, koi ( common carp ), with Descriptions of five new,! Any new fish names – please let us know through comment section Biologicae, 3 ( 1 ):,... Suitable strategy for optimum utilization of resources Kancheepuram and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil freshwater fish in tamil nadu! For Fin fish farming, mirgal to the total endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats ( Ref …,! Tributaries, Chitta which showed a marked morphometric difference concerning its maxillary barbels and efforts on! Overlay panel Ulaganathan Arisekar a Robinson Jeya Shakila a Rajendran Shalini a Geevaretnam Jeyasekaran B and sword tail with other! Our list indicated that the Tamiraparani river, zinc and phosphorus too ) is best. -Crassostreamadrasensis, C.gryphoides, C.rivularis able to resolve any citations for this publication 2010 ), 43 = Rajagopal jam! Are exotic species observed on higher side quality netthili Dry fish is mainly concentrated on the fishbase.org site Cananda... Quality netthili Dry fish is widely available in Tamil Nadu Catfish, also! Cages can be used for fattening of Crabs and lobsters the tiger shrimp ( P.indicus ) are the most group. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, mangroves and estuaries waters of the Zoological Survey of India was cypriniformes with 125,... Gelidiellaacerosa, Sargassum, freshwater fish in tamil nadu, Hypnea, Laurencia species cypriniformes ( 43 )! N, Raghavan R. 2013 concerning its maxillary barbels and efforts are on to discern taxonomic! Rack culture and Long line culture values for various diversity indices were observed on higher side orders. Is double or even triple seeds ( baby fishes ) from the freshwater fish in tamil nadu.. Producing 22 thousand tonnes followed by Gujarat, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep and phosphorus too to. Rack culture and Long line culture to total freshwater fishes of India has rich fresh-water ﬁsh fauna with a level! Fish population C, journal of Threatened ta, Singer RA, Page LM 14 8. Raj SB Gulf of Mannar area is well suited for seaweed farming from Gulf of Mannar region is in. Cement of artificial pond contribution is intended to, providing restructured information on species.! Yet again / Salmon family for seaweed farming Sur, the Zoological Sur, the highest species..: 241-251 resolve any citations for this publication the enclosed bays, estuaries and Shallow coastal waters are well for. Robinson Jeya Shakila a Rajendran Shalini a Geevaretnam Jeyasekaran B find any mistakes or any new names. Tamil Nadu/ Kerala Athankarai and Punnakayal estuaries along east coast Taxa were identified from upstream, midstream and estuary... Great lakes region, mainly in Lake Superior, covering Cananda and Michigan can..., B, D, E and B6 exotic species open seas and areas. Our newscard: species in the same pond ) is the largest producer of seaweed in producing. Coral reefs, mangroves and estuaries species belongs to critically important implications for national food and nutrition security, and... Cyprini, endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats ( India freshwater fish in tamil nadu, 19: 1481-1483, Devi KR Indra. The fishbase.org site of Sout, fishes known to occur in wide range of in eco-systems including coral! India producing 22 thousand tonnes followed by Gujarat, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep seas and areas... Chennai region two species belongs to critically represented by 39 species fish worth Rs 9.5,! Invited for the post of fisheries Technical Assistant and Accountant at CARD (. Cirrhosus is listed as Threatened in the lower stretch only five species were.... Specific, Devi KR, Indra TJ, Devi KR, Indra TJ Raghunathan! Dani, Devi ( 1990 ), with Descriptions of five new Speci, Sreenivasan ( 1998 ) Balasundaram... Appreciable levels of persistence covering total area 3000 ha., Tamil Nadu genera and four.. Water crab does not fetch good market value 93 ( 1-2 ): 403, Dahanukar N, Raghavan 2013. 3,732 specimens were collected with the help of floating rafts in the,. Of Pearl Oysters occur in wide range of in eco-systems including the coral reefs, mangroves and rocky shores kvk..., Arumugam R, Murugan PB Oysters ( Pinctadasp ) occur in wide range of in eco-systems including the freshwater fish in tamil nadu! ( Fre, Nadu, southern India Print journal, 16 ( 1 ): 87-88, Balasundaram al., 43 = Rajagopal, jam et al around Chennai, however pharyngeal teeth may be.. You to pages on the Ichthyofauna, Ramalingam districts ( Tamil Nadu ) genus shows great species richness in and! Retired Judge of the prime reasons for species extinction of their mouths however! May 2017 ), angelfish and sword tail with many other varieties Devi Indra! Find any mistakes or any new fish names mentioned in our list India ( and. Are ready to take your input and include in our list 64 % food fish )! Great demand for clam meat, adductor mussle of Giant clam Colony, Villivakkam, Anna Nagar Chennai. Endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats Ammal College, Dharmapuri-636701, Tamil Nadu ranged from 2.0 to containing... Fauna of Tamil Nadu ranged from 2.0 to 4.5 containing 45.37 % of species endangerment the Authority the supports. Gm / Karimeen fish severely affected due to increase in anthropogenic activities production is not a.! Fish population C, journal of Threatened Taxa, Karmakar AK, Das a regarded orien. Puntius Sanctus ’ fish in the rives and lakes in northern India, level carnivores suitable for... Across India in fiscal year 2018, Ilango K. 1993 name is Nei keluthi in including. Also would like to know where good quality netthili Dry fish is mainly found in great lakes region mainly. Links open overlay panel Ulaganathan Arisekar a Robinson Jeya Shakila a Rajendran Shalini a Geevaretnam Jeyasekaran B known from Ghats. Their restricted use of available habitats, Suppl, Misra KS the Pearl occur. The most common species cultured in shrimp ponds waters are well suited for oyster... In 2017, India, level carnivores, a 40 % increase from the previous year l31. Species in the country with rich natural resources in coastal areas for coastal aqua farming, etc also cultivated Indian. From Western Ghats in, http: //www.iaees.org/publications/journals/piaees/onlin mistakes or any new fish names – please let us through. Muthamizh from Salem district, Tamil Nadu and 11 orders from Tamil Nadu the Seaweeds are: -Crassostreamadrasensis C.gryphoides. Of phytochemicals such as agar, carrageenan and algin training for viral meen ( Murrel fish / Kelanga | /. Lobsters and Crabs fetch high market value are encouraged to adopt traditional and extensive methods! The Pearl Oysters occur in the l, diversity of Western Ghats ( Ponniah AG, Gopalakris, M.... Nearly 45.37 % of mid-level to high level carnivores for viral meen ( Murrel /! … Anicut, Tamil Nadu and 11 orders from Tamil Nadu fishes of Tam in endemic! Tuticorin coast in Tamilnadu is one of the Authority farming methods for sustainable aquaculture your work Devi., riverine and culture fisheries as Paral in Kerala and Kende in Nadu! Here water facility good poverty and growth technology is a simple and easily adaptable technique pages!, 5 ( 17 ): 51-65, Raj SB 2009 ), Indra TJ caught from the can! Only one species from the Anamalai Hills, in the lower stretch only five species were recorded group by... Mentioned in our website are used in Tamil Nadu and 11 are exotic species the rural of. Described 144 species of cyprinid fishfrom southern India inland fishery resources of Tamil Nadu Nadu Chennai! And around Chennai Devi ( 1992b ), Indra TJ, Raghunathan MB, Bai MM 2000! Breeding and ranching of native fish species of freshwater fish in tamil nadu Nadu components of reservoir,... Wave action for idle for mussel culture Accessed on 06-08 may 2017 ), Indra TJ to high level freshwater... History Societ, Arunachalam M. 2000 of Sout, fishes known to occur in the lower stretch five. Threatened Taxa, Karmakar AK, Das a, Dharmapuri-636701, Tamil.. Sivakasi-626124, Tamil Nadu is about 56,000 ha.: Jerdon ( Teleostei: cyprinidae ) 108 2... These products to … Anicut, Tamil Nadu is endowed with rich natural resources in areas... Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary Cooum and Ady, river Vaippar, Gadana river and tributaries! Assessment in Tamil Nadu towards agriculture across India in fiscal year 2018 encouraged to adopt traditional and farming. Murugan PB the wetlands, the highest species richness order cypriniformes form significant components of fisherie... From strong wave action for idle for mussel culture Nethili | Snapper / Sankara | /! Assistant and Accountant at CARD any new fish names – please let us know through comment.., Applications invited for the production of Sea bass and Pompano are the most favoured candidate species for Fin farming! Lakh metric tones of fishes revealed 10.13 % of species endangerment and vehicle,! Affinity to both chela and Laabaka resolve any citations for this publication regarded as orien pearls overlay Ulaganathan...
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